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This roadmap provides an outline of the material that is most useful to bring users up the
Rational Robot learning curve for functional testing. The emphasis will be on the steps
you will need to take to understand Robot and get to the point where you can efficiently
use the tool for functional testing. First, find the section that best describes your current
learning challenge with Robot. Then study the material in that section to help advance
you to the next level
TSL ( Test Script Language)
This book is a comprehensive guide to Mercury Interactive�s Test Script
Language (TSL). It provides a detailed description of TSL and how to use it in
your test scripts. It lists all TSL functions alphabetically and by category, and
describes the parameters, return values, and availability for each function.
This book assumes that you are already familiar with WinRunner. For
information on using WinRunner, see the WinRunner User�s Guide
Architectures of Test Automation
Many of the ideas in this presentation were jointly developed with Doug Hoffman, in a course that we
taught together on test automation, and in the Los Altos Workshops on Software Testing (LAWST) and
the Austin Workshop on Test Automation (AWTA).
∙ LAWST 5 focused on oracles. Participants were Chris Agruss, James Bach, Jack Falk, David
Gelperin, Elisabeth Hendrickson, Doug Hoffman, Bob Johnson, Cem Kaner, Brian Lawrence,
Noel Nyman, Jeff Payne, Johanna Rothman, Melora Svoboda, Loretta Suzuki, and Ned
∙ LAWST 1-3 focused on several aspects of automated testing. Participants were Chris Agruss,
Tom Arnold, Richard Bender, James Bach, Jim Brooks, Karla Fisher, Chip Groder, Elizabeth
Hendrickson, Doug Hoffman, Keith W. Hooper, III, Bob Johnson, Cem Kaner, Brian Lawrence,
Tom Lindemuth, Brian Marick, Thanga Meenakshi, Noel Nyman, Jeffery E. Payne, Bret
Pettichord, Drew Pritsker, Johanna Rothman, Jane Stepak, Melora Svoboda, Jeremy White,
and Rodney Wilson.
∙ AWTA also reviewed and discussed several strategies of test automation. Participants in the
first meeting were Chris Agruss, Robyn Brilliant, Harvey Deutsch, Allen Johnson, Cem Kaner,
Brian Lawrence, Barton Layne, Chang Lui, Jamie Mitchell, Noel Nyman, Barindralal Pal, Bret
Pettichord, Christiano Plini, Cynthia Sadler, and Beth Schmitz.
I�m indebted to Hans Buwalda, Elizabeth Hendrickson, Alan Jorgensen, Noel Nyman , Harry Robinson,
James Tierney, and James Whittaker for additional explanations of test architecture and/or stochastic
Functional Test Automation
unctional testing assures that your implementation of SAP meets
your business requirements. Given the highly configurable and
tightly integrated nature of the SAP modules, as well as the probability that you will also integrate in-house applications or third-party
plug-ins, it is a critical and challenging task requiring the verification
of hundreds or even thousands of business processes and the rules
that govern them.
This chapter explores the business case for automating your functional testing, the alternative automation approaches to consider, and
organizational considerations and techniques for maintaining and
managing your test automation assets
Functional test automation tools
This volume is a component of the Yphise Software Assessment Report (see chapter entitled
�Yphise Software Assessment Reports�).
It is designed to monitor developments of the software product market and to select a short
� It assesses the maturity and opportunities of the products available.
� It highlights the list of software products that we consider of interest to large companies.
Our experience has shown that products do not always satisfactorily provide the functions
that we expect, based on vendor positioning. As a result, many improper selections of
software products are made.
� It highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each software product, based on our detailed
assessment conducted according to our ISO 9001-certified methodology. It provides a topdown ranking of the products and it outlines our opinion.
A Vision for Automated Testing
TT-Medal is a European research project on tests and testing methodologies
for advanced languages. In TT-Medal key roles are assigned to international
standards, the Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) by ETSI and ITUT, the Unified Modelling Language (UML2.0) and its testing profile by the
Reading this white paper provides you a summary on the state of the art of
test tools, an introduction to TT-Medal achievements, in particular insight into
the industrial case studies that have been performed in the project. Three
major directions for research are addressed: a common test tool
infrastructure, approaches for the automatic generation of TTCN-3 tests, and
the integrated system and test development. Our conclusion picks up these
directions and attempts to describe a future picture for automated testing in
the next years
Automated Testing with WWW::Mechanize
Humans make mistakes
Bugs cost time & money
Bugs are demoralizing
Testing shows that your code works
At least in the cases that you're testin
Homebrew Test Automation
Bret Pettichord, a software testing expert and an influential author and speaker,
joined ThoughtWorks in July 2004. Mr. Pettichord serves ThoughtWorks, Inc. as a
test architect, implementing effective technologies for automated testing and
promoting responsible methodologies for agile testing and quality assurance.
His software testing philosophy is context-driven, focusing on uncovering
important risks, maintaining close relations with programmers, and using agile
testing methods that provide rapid feedback. He has broad experience using
commercial and open-source tools for automated testing.
Mr. Pettichord is a founder of the Context-Driven School of software testing,
which sees testing as a technical investigation of software risk that requires skill,
adaptability and tact. He co-authored Lessons Learned in Software Testing (a Jolt
Award finalist) to explain the thinking of the School. He has published over two
dozen papers on software testing and test automation. His ideas about homebrew
automation, agile testing and testability have been featured in Application
Development Trends and The Rational Edge.
As a member of the Agile community, he has regularly hosted workshops that
have brought together leading testers and programmers to assess and develop
methods for testing on agile projects. Mr. Pettichord founded the Austin Workshop
on Test Automation in 2000. It�s a yearly event that brings together leading test
automators. He has been regularly contributing to similar workshops since the first
meeting of the Los Altos Workshop on Software Testing in 1996. He regularly
speaks at conferences around the world.
Software Automated Testing Guidelines
Most of today�s enterprise software is developed
using some variant of agile process like RUP .
The main idea of these processes is to break-up the
whole big project into many small manageable parts.
Each part is released to the client, while the
subsequent releases integrate with the older one.
These kinds of processes have their own benefits for
all the stakeholders.
Once a project is complete and the whole product
is fully deployed, the product goes into the
maintenance phase. Software in general and
enterprise applications in specific should not resist
changing. Due to this reason these days software are
built using pluggable components. Any component
could be changed anytime as the needs arise. There
could be numerous reasons for the change. We are
not discussing the reasons to initiate these changes
but one thing is obvious that in today�s volatile
world change is inevitable in the software.
In the above two scenarios, it is notable that
software testing team has to do lot of regression
testing. In scenario one, whenever a new iteration is
complete and it is merged with the previous release,
the inspection team has to thoroughly test the new
functionality while running the regression test on the
previous release, to make sure that integration is
smooth. In a big enterprise application the amount of
software, to be regression tested, increases. In
scenario two, mostly the client changes are too small
as compared to the size of the whole project. Again
the result is that once the change is implemented,
inspection team has a lot of testing work as far as
regression testing is concerned. Although software
organizations try to circumvent this situation by
intelligently analyzing and segregating software
parts which could potentially malfunction and hence
are good candidate of regression testing. But this
method has its potential risks.
Iterative development and changes initiated by
client are not the only situations when testing team
has lot of work to do. Different organizations
perform different testing cycles on their releases.
Similarly after each bug fix, localized regression is
performed. So the workload of inspection team is
ever increasing .
In this paper, we are not discussing that how an
organization could choose from its repertoire of
choices. Our focus is to present guidelines for an
organization, which has already decided to go for
automated testing. Automated software testing is
comparatively a newer approach of testing and lot of
myths surrounds this technique. In section 2, we
have discussed various testing alternatives.
Automated testing is one of them. In section 3, we
have discussed some benefits of automated testing.
In section 4, a few challenges of automation have
been discussed briefly. In rest of this paper, a
prescription or guidelines for an organization which
has already arrived at the decision to use automated
testing, have been suggested in detail.
Agile Automation Testing
What is Agile Automation Testing? Automation of the test cases done
for the Agile project means applying the agile values and principles
for doing the automation of the test cases.
The biggest difference between agile methods and traditional method
of testing is the short feedback loop. The concept of agility is nothing
more, than "build the most important module of the system, evaluate,
adjust, and repeat". Effective automation requires thoughtful
investment and is a very important tool for shortening the feedback
In agile methods the majority of the automated tests consist of unit
tests that verify the smallest possible modules of software and can be
executed very quickly. Applying agile values and principles helps
teams get traction in starting their automation efforts.
It makes it possible to execute the test set many times a day or even
many times an hour and shortens the feedback loop even more.
The paper describes how to apply agile values, principles and
practices to develop an automation strategy. Where to start from, how
to start, what you shouldn�t automate, and where you should proceed
with caution this paper describes it all.
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